Caiaphas was a major player in the trial. He is the one who earlier in Christ's ministry said it only made sense for Jesus to die. Caiphas feared the impact of Christ on the world he lived for...the nation of Israel and his role within it. He allowed what he saw to dominate his world; truth was secondary to his desires. Peter demonstrated fear in another way. Brought into the High Priest's court by another disciple with connections, Peter fixed his eyes on 'what ifs' rather than the Savior. The trial moved from the religious leaders to the secular world powers. Putting God on trial is a public act with huge implications. We risk taking a lot of people down with us.
Christ's responses are vital to see. Often His response was 'You say.' He knows what is in our hearts; He spoke the very thoughts of the ones who accused Him. They knew He was God; they chose their own will. I am pulled up short to know that every time I buy a lie and allow doubt to enter in, I am trying the King. I know He is God, yet I push Him off His throne and honor my fear instead.
Then there was Pilate. His heart was divided...and Jesus called Him to get off the fence and decide what He believed. Would he speak from his heart or what others said? That is a call we each have too. God wants us to believe from our own hearts and not rely on others beliefs. The goal of the life journey is a clear witness to our own faith in Truth.
I tried to find the 'end' for Caiaphas and it is unclear. The only other scripture reference has him accusing the disciples and trying to silence their witness. It would seem his hardness continued on. Records I have found on Pilate say his uncertainty of 'truth' led him to suicide. God allows us to 'try' Him...but in doing so, we choose our own judgment. It is a weighty matter.
Worthy is the Lamb of our complete confidence! Asking questions is not a problem. But honest acceptance of what we see and know has eternal implications.